What is diabetes?

What is diabetes?

You must have heard people talking about diabetes, taking sugar free substitute of sugar, or not consuming sweets as a precautionary measure to prevent diabetes.

But most of us don’t know the reason behind it. Y it happens? How is it caused?

Let’s solve the mystery and have a better knowledge of WHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes is a group of metabolic disease in which blood sugar level or blood glucose increases for prolonged time. Glucose comes from the food we eat. The food which we eat is metabolized by the enzymes present and converted into simple sugars like glucose. This simple sugar is taken up by the cells and is a source of energy.

Insulin is hormone, secreted by beta cells in pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats by helping the cells to take up glucose from the blood to the muscles, so that fat stored will be reserved during scarcity. Insulin also inhibits the production insulin from liver.

Diabetes can be either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Due to malfunctioning of diabetes, cells do not take up glucose. Hence, its level is increased in the blood leading to diabetes.

According to statistics, in 2014 it was estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world has diabetes and 90 % of this is Type 2 Diabetes and only 10% is Type 1 Diabetes.

Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).  If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. It can lead to cardiovascular disease, stroke, and damage to eyes in worst cases.

There are three types of diabetes-

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes can be easily prevented with slight modification in lifestyle and eating habits. Treatment involves healthy diet, physical exercise.

A simple blood test can confirm whether you have diabetes or not. And don’t get panic if it results positive. Controlled diet plan, exercise will resolve the problem. You should regularly monitor the glucose level and take medicine if required to control blood sugar level.

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