Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood.
There are three types of diabetes-
Type 1 diabetes- It is known as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency. In diabetes type 1 there T-cell mediated auto immune attack which leads to loss and beta call leading to loss of insulin. As a result, sugar builds up in the blood instead of being used as energy. About five to 10 per cent of people with diabetes have type1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally develops in childhood or adolescence and is therefore known as Juvenile diabetes, but it can also develop in adulthood.
Type 1 diabetes is fatal unless the patient regularly takes exogenous insulin. Some patients have had their beta cells replaced through a pancreas transplant and have managed to produce their own insulin again.
Diabetes can be tested by C- peptide assay. It can tell whether you are suffering from type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
A person with type 1 diabetes must regulate his diet. He should consume foods which are low in fats, salts and must have complex carbohydrates. Food and exogenous insulin will together balance the blood glucose level.
Type 2 diabetes- It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is a condition in which cells fails to respond to insulin properly. It is usually found in people who are overweight or getting old. It is referred as adult onset diabetes but these days young children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes as there is lack of physical activity. About 90 percent of all cases of diabetes are Type 2 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes there is insulin resistance, body is producing the insulin but insulin sensitivity is reduced so it do not respond to it. In this case cells do not take up the glucose and are devoid of energy and shunted growth. As a result there is buildup of glucose in the blood.
Individuals having fat concentrated around the waist are more predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. Adipokines are hormone released by abdominal fat, and it is known to impair glucose tolerance.
You can achieve satisfactory blood glucose control with the help of exercise and controlled intake of carbohydrates.
If diabetes mellitus persists, patient will be administered anti-diabetic drug.
Gestational Diabetes- It is third most important type of diabetes. It occurs in pregnant women. It improves or disappears soon after delivery. A woman having gestational diabetes is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later stage.
Gestational diabetes if left untreated it can lead to serious complications of newborn baby. Babies might of too large causing risk during birth. New born baby have high risk of developing jaundice and breathing problems.